People needed medical help, treatment and care at all times, regardless of their status and origin. Military and domestic injuries, hunting injuries, accidents, diseases, epidemics, birth of children led to the need for treatment and care. The fact that care for the sick is a science and art has been known since ancient times. History has quite a lot of examples of patient care. Thus, for example, the monastic order of Hospitallers dates back to 600, when Pope Gregory the Great sent the Abbot Trial to Jerusalem to build a hospital, the purpose of which was to treat and care for Christian pilgrims in the Holy Land. Undergoing various historical ups and downs by the middle of the 12th century, the Order was divided into warrior brothers and healers who cared for the sick.
In Russia, systematic training in patient care began at the Moscow Hospital opened in 1707 thanks to the order of Peter I and the efforts of Dutch physician N. Bidloo. Women began to be recruited to care for patients in hospitals and infirmaries, but soon women’s labor was abolished and the role of caregivers was given to retired soldiers (soldiers-advisitors). In the Warrior’s Statute of 1716 it is written: “It is always necessary to be with ten patients to be for the sake of humility to one soldier, which the sick live and have a dress on them to wash”. From the middle of the XVIII century again began to attract women’s labor in hospitals, for this purpose attracted bab-sitters – wives or widows of hospital soldiers. In 1814, by order of Empress Maria Fyodorovna on a voluntary basis from the St. Petersburg Widow’s House were invited to the hospital women (widows, wives of lame and elderly soldiers, standing in public service and left without a livelihood) to walk and watch the sick.
In our time, the need to care for the sick in the hospital has become an issue. It is also expected to occur suddenly. It may be close people after surgery, after a stroke, heart attack, injury, sudden occurrence or exacerbation of chronic illness and other diseases. Children with disabilities, a child, including a newborn, a woman in the postpartum period, elderly parents and other situations where care may be required.
Modern care principles differ significantly from those described since F. findngale. Previously, it was believed that the ward should be limited in movement and self-care, the less they will do themselves, the better, as much as possible and fattening, etc.. Patients were on bed rest, they were fed and washed. Everyone was provided the same care, without taking into account individual characteristics and needs. Nowadays, care specialists (nurses, social workers, as well as people caring for relatives) have developed new principles of active care using empirical methods.
Motivated and encouraged by the desire and ability for self-care, the caregivers themselves participate in the planning and selection of care system, with special attention to the patient’s personality, condition, mental and physical activity. Studies have shown that people who remain (if possible) active with problems in self-care better perceive the care and treatment process, recover faster, retain a sense of self-confidence, mental ability, less depressed and aggressive, improve their quality of life and prolong life itself. Research results have changed the professional approach and methods of care, but we still care for the patient.
The care, depending on the cause, can be short- or long-term, and includes general and special activities.
Depending on the patient’s pathology and condition, and personal needs, we can provide care:
- substitute, when we do everything for the ward (for paralysis, spinal and brain injuries, some operations, mental illness);
- compensating when the patient takes care of himself if possible, and we perform those manipulations that he does not cope with (finishing, remodeling, etc.);
- consultative, when the patient is fully able to take care of himself, he still has physical and mental activity, we need to teach, guide and control him.